Make the chicken broth. Heat ¼ cup oil in a large pot over medium heat. Add the fried shallots, garlic, ginger, cumin, and turmeric, and saute for 1 minute or until aromatic.
Add the chicken thighs, chicken broth, lime leaves, lemongrass, black peppercorns, and chili de arbol to the pot. Cover and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to low and continue to simmer for 30 minutes or until the chicken is tender. Discard the lime leaves, lemongrass, and chili de arbol. Remove the chicken and shred the meat.
Meanwhile, make the garlic chips. Heat ¼ cup in a small saute pan over medium heat. Add the sliced garlic and cook until lightly golden brown. Remove from heat and let cool completely. The garlic will continue to cook in the hot oil.
Season the soup with fish sauce, coconut milk, salt, and pepper. Add the shredded cabbage to the soup and cook until tender, about 2 minutes.
Cook the egg noodles and portion them into 4 bowls. Ladle the soup on top along with the shredded chicken, poached eggs, fresh scallions, and cilantro. Garnish the bowls with the fried garlic chips, drizzling a bit of the garlic oil on top. Serve with lime wedges on the side.